The sperm’s quality is not taken care of by any men unless and until they start to plan for a family. But that should not be the case. The majority of infertility cases are due to unhealthy sperms or low sperm counts. You need to take care of the sperms’ health as soon as possible because that will help your partner conceive without any complications.

The lifestyle and habits of food intake are significant reasons for unhealthy sperm. If you bring changes in these, you will achieve having healthy sperms. It takes about three months to produce new and healthy sperm.

How do sperms get affected?

The bacteria originate from the urinary tract, which is responsible for causing contamination in the semen. Your partner can also transfer it during sexual intercourse. Escherichia coli is an isolated microorganism responsible for causing semen contamination or genital tract infections in male patients.

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Types of infected semen and their causes

  • Yellow semen

If your semen is healthy, it has to be whitish-gray or white. If, by any chance, the color changes, do not worry. The yellow color of the semen is not always to worry about. It may be caused due to urine in your semen. Urine is left in the urethra sometimes. Urine and sperm both come out of the body from a tube known as the urethra. And when urine is left behind, it mixes with the semen causing the semen to change its color to yellow.

Urine is left behind in the urethra because of infections such as urinary tract infection or prostate getting enlarged, known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, resulting in contamination of the semen with infections.

Yellow semen may also indicate you of Jaundice. Jaundice causes your eyes and skin to appear yellow. It is caused by high bilirubin levels in the body, which usually is an orange-yellow bile pigment. Jaundice is caused by autoimmune disorders, pancreatitis, alcohol use, gallbladder, gallstones, genetic metabolic defects, or viruses. Therefore you must consult your fertility doctor whenever you see the color of your semen changes to yellow to know the exact reason.

Your semen can also appear yellow because of the semen consisting of an excess number of white blood cells. This condition is known as leukocytospermia, also known as pyospermia. This is a very severe condition that can even result in damaging your sperm. This could lead you to infertility.

  • Prostate infection

Prostate infection is caused when the bacteria in the urine leaks into the prostate and is responsible for causing your semen yellowish-green. The bacteria infect the semen.

Some of the prostate infection symptoms are painful ejaculation, cloudy urine, pain in the groin, lower back, penis, abdomen, and painful, frequent, and difficult urination.

  • STD or sexually transmitted diseases

Yellowish-white discharge sometimes comes from the penis, indicating STDs or sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. STD can cause discharge followed by itching, burning during urination, frequent need for urination, and pain.

Leukocytospermia can also be caused due to STDs. Consult a doctor if you think you have STD so that it does not spread to someone else and does not lead you to infertility by causing severe sperm infections.

  • Bacterial infections

Bacterial infections cause sperm infections, and it also leads to infertility. Gonorrhea infections are a kind of bacterial infections that can cause severe diseases to the genital tract. It is responsible for causing urethritis that can affect the fertility of a man.

Chlamydia trachomatis is another kind of bacterial infection, but its impact on females is much more than that of males. Prostatitis, sperm tract infections, and epididymitis are caused by nongonococcal urethritis, an agent of Chlamydia trachomatis. This can cause severe infertility in men by infecting the sperm.

Chlamydia trachomatis can even be responsible for causing premature deaths and low sperm motility if the sperm infected is used in IVF. If there are no symptoms in a male infected by chlamydia, trachomatis can spread this infection to his female partner. The ASA or anti-sperm antibodies which are produced by the infection by trachomatis can even affect fertility.

Escherichia coli is another bacterial infection that is caused by epididymal-orchitis that is nonsexually transmitted. This is involved in most prostatitis cases that are either chronic or acute.

  • Viral infections

Doctors sometimes found by various tests that HSV or herpes simplex virus is located in the semen where the parameters are low such as low motility of sperm and low sperm count. They can cause asthenozoospermia, or impaired motility of the sperm is present in the sperm cells. There is a very close association between infertility along HPV.

  • Fungal infections

Fungal infections like Candida Albicans are found in the urethra. If it is located in the semen, it badly affects the semen, causing in-vitro fertilization issues. The ultrastructure and also the motility of the sperm are also affected by C. Albicans. It is responsible for causing severe male infertility.

  • Protozoa infections

The common parasite of protozoa infections is trichomonas vaginalis, which are found in the male genital tract. It is responsible for causing genital tract disorders, nongonococcal urethritis, and prostatitis. T.Vaginalis also obstructs sperm motility, which is very critical for IVF.

  • HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus

The production and the parameters of the sperms are primarily affected by HIV. The immune function decreases because of HIV.

  • Lifestyle factors

Having excessive alcohol and junk foods can also cause the semen to change its color. If you consume food rich in sulfur such as chives, garlic onion, it can also change the semen’s color, thus making it infected.

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The bottom line

Infertility is a widespread cause and can affect the majority of men worldwide. But you can reduce the chances of infertility as long as you can. The infections in sperm can be a significant problem of infertility and can spread in your female partners.

Many causes and symptoms are mentioned above to reduce the chances of infections. Consult your doctor if you are asymptomatic. Healthy sperm will help to increase the chances of pregnancy without any complications.

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About Authors

Dr. Jay Mehta Fertility and IVF Specialist In Mumbai

Dr. Jay Mehta

Fertility and IVF Specialist


Verified & Most Trusted One

Dr. Jay Mehta is the Scientific Director of Shree IVF Clinic. He is a well-known Fertility and IVF Specialist and also among few doctors in the country who specializes in Embryology and Andrology.

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