Azoospermia is a condition in which a man’s ejaculate contains no sperm. It might be caused by an obstruction in the reproductive system, ejaculation issues, hormonal disorders, or structural or functional issues with the testicles.
Many reasons for infertility may be treated, and fertility can be restored. It may be feasible to extract live sperm in assisted reproductive procedures for other reasons.
What is the relation between Azoospermia and Testosterone?
If you’re curious about what’s within the test is, you’ll find seminiferous tubules, which produce sperm. The brain is responsible for controlling sperm production.
The brain secretes hormones like FSH and LH. Seminiferous tubules are affected by FSH. LH affects the testosterone-secreting leading cells.
Testosterone is a male hormone that causes changes in a masculine voice, hair growth, and muscular growth. FSH activity is increased as a result of testosterone, allowing for good sperm production.
What is FSH?
The testicles only produce sperm in response to a hormone called FSH, released by the brain. When the brain signals that the testicles are producing less sperm than usual, it secretes more FSH to tell the testicles to produce more. If the FSH level is normal (1–7 IU/L), it may predict normal sperm production with more than 90% accuracy.
What is LH?
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a kind of gonadotropin produced by both men and females in the pituitary gland of the brain.
Once puberty is attained, LH, along with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), regulates the reproductive and endocrine systems in both genders:
- In males: Stimulates the synthesis of steroid hormones such as testosterone (steroidogenesis) in the testicles.
- In females: Stimulates the synthesis of androgens, which are the precursors of estrogens, in the ovaries (female hormones). It is also the hormone that causes ovulation in the middle of the menstrual cycle.
Types of azoospermia
There are two forms of azoospermia:
A blockage or missing link in the epididymis, vas deferens, or elsewhere along your reproductive system causes this sort of azoospermia. You are making sperm, but it is being stopped from exiting, resulting in no detectable sperm in your sperm.
FSH, LH, and testosterone levels are all within acceptable limits. The testicle’s size and volume are likewise normal.
In non-obstructive azoospermia, this is the most frequent kind of azoospermia, with 85 percent of persons having it. In this case, the number of sperm produced in the testis is extremely low, and as a result, they are unable to emerge since the quantity is so low.
Testosterone levels may be normal or low, FSH levels can be high, and LH levels might be low or high. The size and volume of the testis may be lowered as a result of this procedure. As a result, Testosterone is factored in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia.
Causes of Obstructive Azoospermia
Obstructive azoospermia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
- A congenital anomaly
- Infection or inflammation of the reproductive tract
- Retrograde ejaculation (Even though there isn’t a blockage in this circumstance technically)
- Past trauma or injury (including surgical)
Causes of Non-obstructive AzoospermiaNon-obstructive azoospermia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
- Adverse effects of medicines or hormonal supplements
- A genetic or chromosomal anomaly
- A varicocele
- Hormonal imbalances
- Radiation, chemotherapy, or other toxin exposure can cause damage to the testes
Receiving an azoospermia diagnosis may be devastating emotionally. FSH may be quite high, LH can also be very high, and Testosterone can be very low. Testicular failure is the medical term for this. Doctors recommend Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) in such cases. Despite receiving any therapy, sperm retrieval is impossible.
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Dr. Jay Mehta
Fertility and IVF Specialist
Dr. Jay Mehta is the Scientific Director of Shree IVF Clinic. He is a well-known Fertility and IVF Specialist and also among few doctors in the country who specializes in Embryology and Andrology.