What is Adenomyosis? Diagnosis and Treatment
UPDATED ON 21 NOV. 2022
Dr Jay Mehta
Scientific Director & IVF Specialist with 10+ years of experience
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The female reproductive system includes a pear-shaped organ called the uterus. It is the site where the embryo grows from the time of fertilization till delivery.
It’s also in charge of the monthly occurrence of your period. Both the uterus and its lining are divided into two halves.
Myometrium refers to the outer layer, while endometrium refers to the inner layer. Uterine typical dimensions are a height of around 6 cm and a breadth of about 4.5 to 5 cm (approx.).
What is Adenomyosis
Adenomyosis is a condition that affects the female reproductive system. As a result, it makes uterus swells and becomes thicker.
A woman’s uterus inner lining (endometrium) comprises endometrial tissue. When these adenoids invade the myometrium, and the outer muscular walls of the uterus, a condition known as adenomyosis develops. Because of this enlarged uterus, women may have painful periods and abnormal uterine bleeding.
How does the Uterus work during periods?
The uterine lining undergoes several transformations during a menstrual cycle. As you move closer to ovulation, the lining, also known as the endometrial lining, will become more blood-filled and thicker.
If a fertilized egg implants in the uterine lining during that cycle, pregnancy will result.
If conception does not occur, your endometrial lining will shed (this is your period). Unless pregnancy develops, this procedure is repeated with each menstrual cycle.
Diagnosis of Adenomyosis
The first step in treating adenomyosis is determining whether you have it. They will probably ask you about your health history and give you a complete physical and pelvic exam.
During a pelvic exam, a woman may experience pain in her uterus. Further diagnostic procedures may be considered if a physician suspects adenomyosis because of a slightly enlarged uterus.
- Ultrasound: The clinician can see small samples of uterine lining tissue inside the uterine muscle.
- MRI: The inner uterine muscle may often be seen on an MRI scan.
- Endometrial biopsy: In some instances, a doctor may wish to collect a sample of endometrial tissue from the uterus for analysis. It won’t assist with adenomyosis diagnosis, but it may help rule out other conditions causing the patient’s symptoms.
This does not mean a definitive diagnosis cannot be made after these tests. Adenomyosis may be diagnosed with certainty only after a hysterectomy after a pathologist has examined the uterus under a microscope.
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Treatment of Adenomyosis
There are a variety of ways to treat adenomyosis.
- Pain relievers and other such medications: For pain management, your doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen.
Reducing menstrual blood flow and associated discomfort may be accomplished by beginning an anti-inflammatory medication one to two days before the start of your period and continuing to take it during your period.
- Hormone medications: Adenomyosis is characterized by abnormal uterine tissue growth, which may cause severe bleeding and discomfort.
Amenorrhea, the temporary cessation of menstruation, is a common adverse effect of progestin-only contraception, such as an intrauterine device or continuous-use birth control tablets, and may bring some comfort.
- Hysterectomy: Your doctor may recommend a hysterectomy if you’ve tried various therapies for extreme discomfort, but they haven’t helped. Adenomyosis may be managed without ovary removal.
The presence of adenomyosis may go unrecognized. However, this syndrome may not always manifest itself clinically. Painful periods, cramps, and sexual activity may all be life-altering disruptions.
Make an appointment with your Gynecologist to discuss treatment options. Assistive medicine exists, namely hormonal ones. Removing the uterus cures the problem if you don’t want children. After menopause, symptoms cease to exist.
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Endometriosis is a challenging condition to deal with. Early diagnosis, a large medical team, and a clear understanding of your diagnosis may all help you better manage your symptoms.